In an unpredicted move, President Vladimir Putin fired long-time chief of staff Sergei Ivanov. On 9 August Putin received a visit from Turkish Prime Minister Recep Erdogan, for the first time since 15 July’s failed coup. Russia stated that it would support a 48-hour ceasefire in the city of Allepo on 18 August, according to the Russian delegate to the United Nations Security Council. According to the Russian Federal Security Service, malware was placed on several critical infrastructure servers by spies. Following Russia’s use of an Iranian military base to launch attacks on Syrian rebel groups, the United States (US) approached the United Nations (UN) to see if this is a violation of a previous Security Council Resolution. Amid tensions over the Crimean Peninsula, both Russia and Ukraine have stepped up their security presence in the region. Following the escalation of military presence in the Crimean Peninsula, the Russian markets were thrown into potential crisis due to an increased belief in continuing European Union (EU) sanctions. According to Economic Development Minister Alexei Ulyukayev, the Russian GDP will begin its rebound in October 2016.